Social Studies Standards

Grades 5-8

STRAND : History

Content Standard I: Students are able to identify important people and events in order to analyze significant patterns, relationships, themes, ideas, beliefs, and turning points in New Mexico, United States, and world history in order to understand the complexity of the human experience.  Students will:

5-8 Benchmark 1-A.  New Mexico:  explore and explain how people and events have influenced the development of New Mexico up

to the present day:


Performance Standards


1.     describe changes of governance of New Mexico (e.g., indigenous, Spanish, Mexican, French, Texan, confederate, United States);

2.     explain the reasons for European exploration of the Americas.


1.     describe the relationships among ancient civilizations of the world (e.g., scientific discoveries, architecture, politics, cultures and religious

systems) and their connection to the early development of New Mexico.


1.     compare and contrast the contributions of the civilizations of the western hemisphere (e.g., Aztecs, Mayas, Toltecs, mound builders) with the early civilizations of the eastern hemisphere (e.g., Sumerians, Babylonians, Hebrews, Egyptians) and their impact upon societies, to include:

a.    effect on world economies and trade;

b.    roles of people, class structures, language;

c.    religious traditions and forms of government; and

d.   cultural and scientific contributions (e.g., advances in astronomy, mathematics, agriculture, architecture, artistic and oral traditions, development of writing systems and calendars);

2.    [1/1, 2/1, 3/1] describe the characteristics of other indigenous peoples that had an effect upon New MexicoÕs development (e.g., pueblo farmers, great plains horse culture, nomadic bands, etc. - noting their development of tools, trading routes, adaptation to environments, social structure, domestication

of plants and animals);

3.[1/1, 2/1]- [2/1]-[2/1] explain the significance of trails and trade routes within the region (e.g., Spanish trail, Camino Real, Santa Fe trail);

4.    [2/1, 3/1] describe how important individuals, groups and events impacted the development of New Mexico from 16th century to the present (e.g., Don Juan de Oate, Don Diego de Vargas, pueblo revolt, Popˇ, 1837 revolt, 1848 rebellion, treaty of Guadalupe Hildago, William Becknell and the Santa Fe trail, buffalo soldiers, Lincoln county war, Navajo long walk, Theodore Roosevelt and the rough riders, Robert Goddard, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Smokey Bear, Dennis Chavez, Manuel Lujan, Manhattan project, Harrison Schmitt, Albuquerque international balloon fiesta);

5.[2/1] - [2/1,3/1] explain how New Mexicans have adapted to their physical environments to meet their needs over time (e.g.,living in the desert, control over water resources, pueblo structure, highway system, use of natural resources); and

6.  [2/1, 3/1]   explain the impact of New Mexico on the development of the American west up to the present, to include:  availability of land (e.g., individual, government, railroad, tribal, etc.); government land grants/treaties; transportation (e.g., wagons, railroads, automobile); identification and use of natural and human resources; population growth and economic patterns; and cultural interactions among indigenous and arriving populations and the resulting changes.


1.     compare and contrast the settlement patterns of the American southwest with other regions of the United States;

2.     analyze New MexicoÕs role and impact on the outcome of the civil war (e.g., strategic geographic location, significance of the battle of

Glorieta Pass, trade routes to California, native allegiances); and

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3.     explain the role New Mexico played in the United States participation in the Spanish American war.

5-8 Benchmark 1-B.  United States:  analyze and interpret major eras, events and individuals from the periods of exploration and

colonization through the civil war and reconstruction in United States history:


Performance Standards


1.      explain the motivations for the European exploration of the Americas (e.g.,  Leif Ericson, Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Hern‡n Cortez, Jacques Cartier, Henry Hudson);

2.       describe and explain the reasons for colonization, to include: religious freedom, desire for land, economic opportunity, a new way of life, including the roles and views of key individuals who founded colonies (e.g., John Smith, William Penn, Lord Baltimore);

3.     explain the significance of major historical documents (e.g., the Mayflower compact, the declaration of independence, the federalist papers, United States constitution, bill of rights, the Gettysburg address);

4.     identify the interactions between American Indians and European settlers, including agriculture, cultural exchanges, alliances and conflicts (e.g., the first Thanksgiving, the pueblo revolt, French and Indian war);

5.     describe how the introduction of slavery into the Americas, and especially the United States, laid a foundation for conflict; and

6.       explain early representative government and identify democratic practices that emerged (e.g., Iroquois nation model, town meetings, assemblies).


1.     explain and describe the origins, obstacles and impact of the age of exploration, to include:  improvements in technology (e.g., the clock, the

sextant, work of Prince Henry the navigator), voyages of Columbus to the new world and the later searches for the northwest passage, introduction of disease and the resulting population decline (especially among indigenous peoples), exchanges of technology, ideas, agricultural products and practices.


1.   [1/2, 2/1, 3/1] analyze United States political policies on expansion of the United States into the southwest (e.g., Mexican cession, Gadsden purchase, broken treaties, long walk of the Navajos).


1.   describe, evaluate and interpret the economic and political reasons for the American revolution, to include:

a.   [1/1] Š [1/1, 2/2]attempts to regulate colonial trade through passage of Tea Act, Stamp Act and Intolerable Acts; colonistsÕ reaction to British policy (e.g., boycotts, the sons of liberty, petitions, appeals to parliament);

b.   [2/1, 3/1]  the ideas expressed in the declaration of independence, including the preamble;

2.     describe the aspirations, ideals and events that served as the foundation for the creation of a new national government, to include:

a.    articles of confederation, the constitution and the success of each in implementing the ideals of the declaration of independence;

b.   [2/1] major debates of the constitutional convention and their resolution (e.g., the federalist papers), contributions and roles of major individuals in the writing and ratification of the constitution (e.g., George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, ThomasJefferson, James MonroeJohn Jay);

c.   [1/1] struggles over ratification of the constitution and the creation of the bill of rights;

3.     describe and explain the actions taken to build one nation from thirteen states, to include:

a.   [1/1] precedents established by George Washington (e.g., cabinet, two-term presidency); Alexander HamiltonÕs financial plan (e.g., the national bank, payment of debts);

b.    creation of political parties (democratic republicans and the federalists);

4.     describe the successes and failures of the reforms during the age of Jackson, to include:

a.    extension of franchise to all white men;

b.    [2/1, 3/1] Indian removal, the trail of tears, the long walk;

c.    abolition movement (e.g., Quakers, Harriet Tubman, underground railroad);

5.     describe, explain and analyze the aims and impact of western expansion and the settlement of the United States, to include:


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a.   [1/1] American belief in manifest destiny and how it led to the Mexican war and its consequences;

b.   comparison of African American and Native American slavery; westward migration of peoples (e.g., Oregon, California, Mormons and southwest);

c.    [2/1] origins and early history of the womenÕs movement;

6.     explain how sectionalism led to the civil war, to include:

a.    [2/1]  different economies that developed in the north, south and west; addition of new states to the union and the balance of power in the United States senate (Missouri and 1850 compromises);

b.    [1/1, 3/1] extension of slavery into the territories (e.g., Dred Scott decision, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Frederick Douglass, John Brown);

c.    [2/1]  presidential election of 1860, LincolnÕs victory and the southÕs secession;

7.     explain the course and consequences of the civil war and how it divided people in the United States, to include:

a.   [1/1] contributions and significance of key figures (e.g., Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, William Tecumseh Sherman, Ulysses S. Grant);

b.   [1/1]  major turning points in the civil war, including Gettysburg; unique nature of the civil war (e.g., impact of Americans fighting Americans, high casualties caused by disease and type of warfare, widespread destruction of American property);

c.    [1/1]  role of African Americans; purpose and effect of the emancipation proclamation; and

8.     analyze the character and lasting consequences of reconstruction, to include:

a.    reconstruction plans; impact of LincolnÕs assassination and the impeachment of Andrew Johnson;

b.   attempts to protect the rights and enhance the opportunities for freedmen by the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the United States constitution;

c.    post-civil war segregation policies and their resulting impact on racial issues in the United States.

5-8 Benchmark 1-C. World: compare / contrast major historical eras, events, figures from ancient civilizations-age of



Performance Standards


1.     describe the characteristics of early societies, including the development of tools and adaptation to environments;

2.     identify, describe and explain the political, religious, economic and social conditions in Europe that led to the era of colonization;

3.     identify the European countries that colonized the North American continent and their areas of settlement; and

4.     describe the development of slavery as a widespread practice that limits human freedoms and potentials.


1.     [1/1, 2/4] describe and compare the characteristics of the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia and China and explain the importance of their contributions to later civilizations, to include:

a.    significance of river valleys; early irrigation and its impact on agriculture;

b.    forms of government (e.g., the theocracies in Egypt, dynasties in China);

c.    effect on world economies and trade;

d.    key historical figures;

e.    religious traditions, cultural, and scientific contributions (e.g., writing systems, calendars, building of monuments such as the pyramids);

2.     [2/3] describe and analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious and social structures of early civilizations of India, to include:

a.    location and description of the river systems and other topographical features that supported the rise of this civilization;

b.    significance of the Aryan invasions;

c.    structure and function of the caste system;

d.   important aesthetic and intellectual traditions (e.g., Sanskrit literature, medicine, metallurgy, mathematics including Hindu-Arabic numerals and the number zero);

3.     describe and analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious and social structures of the early civilizations in China, to include:

a.    location and description of the origins of Chinese civilization in the Huang-He valley, Shang dynasty, geographical features of China that made governance and movement of ideas and goods difficult and served to isolate the country;


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b.    life of Confucius and the fundamental teachings of Confucianism and Taoism;

c.    rule by dynasties (e.g., Shang, Qin, Han, Tang, and Ming);

d.    historical influence of China on other parts of the world (e.g., tea, paper, wood-block printing, compass, gunpowder);

4.    [1/2, 2/3] describe major religions of the world to include Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam (e.g., founding leaders, traditions, customs, beliefs);

5.    compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, and social characteristics of the ancient Greek, ancient Roman, Ottoman, Indian, Arabic, African and middle eastern civilizations and their enduring impacts on later civilizations, to include:

a.    influence of Mediterranean geography on the development and expansion of the civilizations;

b.    development of concepts of government and citizenship (e.g., democracy, republic, codification of laws, Code of Hammurabi);

c.    scientific and cultural advancements (e.g., networks of roads, aqueducts, art, architecture, literature, theater, philosophy);

d.    contributions and roles of key figures (e.g., Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Augustus); and

6.     compare and contrast the political and economic events and the social and geographic characteristics of medieval European life and their enduring impacts on later civilizations, to include:

a.    creation and expansion of the Byzantine empire;

b.   [1/1] reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire;

c.    [1/2, 2/1] new forms of government, feudalism and the beginning of limited government with the Magna Carta;

d.    [1/1] role of the roman catholic church and its monasteries;

e.    [2/2] causes, course and effects of the Crusades; impact of the black plague; contributions and roles of key figures (e.g., Charlemagne, Joan of Arc, Marco Polo).


1.     compare and contrast the influence of Spain on the western hemisphere from colonization to the present.


1. describe and explain the significance of the line of demarcation on the colonization of the new world;

2.    [2/1] compare and contrast the influence of European countries (e.g., England, France, Holland) on the development of colonies in the new world; and

3.     describe and explain the impact of the American revolution on France and the French revolution.

5-8 Benchmark 1-D.  Skills:  research historical events and people from a variety of perspectives:


Performance Standards


1.     differentiate between, locate and use primary and secondary sources (e.g., computer software, interviews, biographies, oral histories, print,

visual material, artifacts) to acquire information;

2.     use resources for historical information (e.g., libraries, museums, historical societies, courthouse, worldwide web, family records, elders);

3.     gather, organize and interpret information using a variety of media and technology;

4.     show the relationship between social contexts and events; and

5.     use effective communication skills and strategies to share research findings.


1.     [1/1] organize information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main

idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions;

2.     identify different points of view about an issue or topic; and

3.     use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a solution; gather information, identify options, predict consequences and take action to implement that solution.


1.     analyze and evaluate information by developing and applying criteria for selecting appropriate information and use it to answer critical


2.     demonstrate the ability to examine history from the perspectives of the participants; and


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3.     use the problem-solving process to identify a problem; gather information, list and consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and

implement a solution and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution using technology to present findings.


1.  [2/1] demonstrate understanding and apply problem-solving skills for historical research, to include: use of primary and secondary sources;

sequencing, posing questions to be answered by historical inquiry; collecting, interpreting and applying information; gathering and validating materials that present a variety of perspectives.


STRAND : Geography

Content Standard II:  Students understand how physical, natural, and cultural processes influence where people live, the ways in which people live, and how societies interact with one another and their

environments. Students will

5-8 Benchmark 2-A:  analyze and evaluate the characteristics and purposes of geographic tools, knowledge, skills and perspectives

and apply them to explain the past, present and future in terms of patterns, events and issues:


Performance Standards


1.      make and use different kinds of maps, globes, charts and databases;

2.     demonstrate how different areas of the United States are organized and interconnected;

3.    identify and locate each of the fifty states and capitols of the United States;

4.     identify tribal territories within states;

5.     employ fundamental geographic vocabulary (e.g., latitude, longitude, interdependence, accessibility, connections);

6.     demonstrate a relational understanding of time zones;

7.     use spatial organization to communicate information; and

8.     identify and locate natural and man-made features of local, regional, state, national and international locales.


1.    [1/3, 2/2] for 1 and 2 identify the location of places using latitude and longitude; and

2.     draw complex and accurate maps from memory and interpret them to answer questions about the location of physical features.


1.     describe ways that mental maps reflect attitudes about places; and

2.     [2/1]describe factors affecting location of human activities, including land-use patterns in urban, suburban and rural areas.


1.     describe patterns and processes of migration and diffusion; and

2.    provide a historic overview of patterns of population expansion into the west by the many diverse groups of people (e.g., Native Americans, European Americans and others) to include movement into the southwest along established settlement, trade and rail routes.

5-8 Benchmark 2-B:  explain the physical and human characteristics of places and use this knowledge to define regions, their

relationships with other regions, and their patterns of change:


Performance Standards


1.     describe human and natural characteristics of places; and

2.     describe similarities and differences among regions of the globe, and their patterns of change.


1.     explain how places change due to human activity;

2.     explain how places and regions serve as cultural symbols and explore the influences and effects of regional symbols; and

3.     identify a region by its formal, functional or perceived characteristics.


1.   [2/1] select and explore a region by its distinguishing characteristics;

2.     describe the role of technology in shaping the characteristics of places;

3.     explain how and why regions change, using global examples; and

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4.    [1/1, 2/1]  [1/1, 2/1] describe geographically-based pathways of inter-regional interaction (e.g., the Camino RealÕs role in establishing a major trade and

communication route in the new world, the significance of waterways).


1.   [2/1] describe how individual and cultural characteristics affect perceptions of locales and regions; and

2.     describe political, population and economic regions that result from patterns of human activity, using New Mexico as an example.

5-8 Benchmark 2-C:  understand how human behavior impacts man-made and natural environments, recognize past and present

results and predict potential changes:


Performance Standards


1.     describe how man-made and natural environments have influenced conditions in the past; and

2.     identify and define geographic issues and problems from accounts of current events.


1.     compare and contrast the influences of man-made and natural environments upon ancient civilizations.



1.     explain how differing perceptions of places, people and resources have affected events and conditions in the past;

2.   [1/1, 2/1]   interpret and analyze geographic information obtained from a variety of sources (e.g., maps, directly witnessed and surveil lanced photographic and digital data, personal documents and interviews, symbolic representations - graphs, charts, diagrams, tables, etc.);

3.     recognize geographic questions and explain how to plan and execute an inquiry to answer them; and

4.     explain a contemporary issue using geographic knowledge, tools and perspectives.


1.    explain and evaluate how changing perceptions of place and the natural environment have affected human behavior.

5-8 Benchmark 2-D:  explain how physical processes shape the earthÕs surface patterns and biosystems:


Performance Standards


1.    explain how the four provinces of New MexicoÕs land surface (plains, mountains, plateau, basin and range) support life.


1.    describe how physical processes shape the environmental patterns of air, land, water, plants and animals.


1.     explain how physical processes influence the formation and location of resources;

2.     use data to interpret changing patterns of air, land, water, plants and animals; and

3.     explain how ecosystems influence settlements and societies.


1.    explain how human activities and physical processes influence change in ecosystems.

5-8 Benchmark 2-E:  explain how economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations and their interdependence, cooperation and conflict:


Performance Standards


1.    explain how physical features influenced the expansion of the United States.


1.    explain how human migration impacts places, societies and civilizations;

2.     describe, locate and compare different settlement patterns throughout the world; and

3.     explain how cultures create a cultural landscape, locally and throughout the world, and how these landscapes change over time.


1.    analyze New Mexico settlement patterns and their impact on current issues;

2.     describe and analyze how the study of geography is used to improve our quality of life, including urban and environmental planning; and

3.     [2/1] explain the accessibility to the New Mexico territory via the Santa Fe trail and the railroad, conflicts with indigenous peoples and the resulting development of New Mexico.


1.   explain and describe how movement of people impacted and shaped western settlement.

5-8 Benchmark 2-F: understand the effects of interactions between human and natural systems in terms of changes in meaning, use,

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distribution and relative importance of resources


Performance Standards


1.     understand how resources impact daily life.


1.     understand how resources impact daily life


1.     describe and evaluate the use and distribution of resources and their impact on countries throughout the world; and

2.     describe how environmental events (e.g., hurricanes, tornados, floods) affect human activities and resources


1.     describe the differing viewpoints that individuals and groups have with respect to the use of resources.


Strand: Civics and Government

Content Standard III: Students understand the ideals, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship and understand the content and history of the founding documents of the United States with particular emphasis

on the United States and New Mexico constitutions and how governments function at local, state, tribal, and national levels.   Students will:

5-8 Benchmark 3-A:  demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and



Performance Standards


1.     explain how the three branches of national government function and explain how they are defined in the United States constitution;

2.     identify the fundamental ideals and principles of our republican form of government (e.g., inalienable rights  such as Ņlife, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,Ó the rule of law, justice, equality under the law);

3.    identify and describe the significance of American symbols, landmarks and essential documents (e.g., declaration of independence; United States constitution; bill of rights; the federalist papers; Washington, D.C.; liberty bell; Gettysburg address; statue of liberty; government to government accords; treaty of Guadalupe Hildago; Gadsden purchase); and

4.      compare and contrast the basic government sovereignty of local, state, tribal and national governments.


1.     [1/1, 2/4]  describe the concept of democracy as developed by the Greeks and compare the evolution of democracies throughout the world; and

2.    [1/1, 3/2] describe the concept of republic as developed by the Romans and compare to other republican governments.


1.     explain the structure and functions of New MexicoÕs state government as expressed in the New Mexico constitution, to include:

a.    roles and methods of initiative, referendum and recall processes;

b.    function of multiple executive offices;

c.    election process (e.g., primaries and general elections);

d.    criminal justice system (e.g., juvenile justice);

2.     explain the roles and relationships of different levels of the legislative process, to include:

a.    structure of New Mexico legislative districts (e.g., number of districts, studentsÕ legislative districts, representatives and senators of the studentsÕ districts);

b.   the structure of the New Mexico legislature and leaders of the legislature during the current session (e.g., bicameral, house of representatives and senate, speaker of the house of representatives, senate pro tem); and

3.    compare the structure and functions of the New Mexico legislature with that of the stateÕs tribal governments (e.g., pueblo Indian council; Navajo, Apache and Hopi nations).


1.     explain the structure and functions of the national government as expressed in the United States constitution, and explain the powers granted

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to the three branches of government and those reserved to the people, states and tribes, to include:

a.    the federal system (dividing sovereignty between the states and the federal government and their supporting bureaucracies);

b.   the sovereignty of Native American tribes in relation to state and federal governments (and government to government relationships); bill of rights, amendments to constitution;

c.    the primacy of individual liberty;

d.    constitution designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government;

e.    struggles over the creation of the bill of rights and its ratification;

f.    [2/2] separation of powers through the development of differing branches;

g.    John MarshallÕs role in judicial review, including Marbury v. Madison;

2.     identify and describe a citizen's fundamental constitutional rights, to include:

a.    [3/1] freedom of religion, expression, assembly and press;

b.    right to a fair trial;

c.    equal protection and due process;

3.     describe the contributions of Native Americans in providing a model that was utilized in forming the United States government (Iroquois league); and

4.     explain and describe how water rights and energy issues cross state and national boundaries.

5-8 Benchmark 3-B: explain the significance of symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:


Performance Standards


1.     explain the significance and importance of American customs, symbols, landmarks and celebrations;

2.     identify and summarize contributions of various racial, ethnic and religious groups to national identity; and

3.     describe selected ethnic and religious customs and celebrations that enhance local, state, tribal and national identities.


1.   describe the significance of leadership in democratic societies and provide examples of local, national and international leadership, to include:

qualities of leadership; names and contributions of New Mexico leaders; names and contributions of national leaders.


1.     explain the concept of diversity and its significance within the political and social unity of New Mexico;

2.     describe ways in which different groups maintain their cultural heritage;

3.     explain how New MexicoÕs state legislature and other state legislatures identify symbols representative of a state; and

4.     identify official and unofficial public symbols of various cultures and describe how they are or are not exemplary of enduring elements of those cultures.


1.     [2/1] explain how the development of symbols, songs, traditions and concepts of leadership reflect American beliefs and principles; and

2.     explain the importance of point of view and its relationship to freedom of speech and press.

5-8 Benchmark 3-C:  compare political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American revolution and the United States government:


Performance Standards


1.     describe the narrative of the people and events associated with the development of the United States constitution, and describe its significance

to the foundation of the American republic, to include:

a.    colonistsÕ and Native AmericansÕ shared sense of individualism, independence and religious freedom that developed before the revolution;

b.    articles of confederation;

c.    purpose of the constitutional convention;

d.    natural rights expressed in the declaration of independence; and

2.     describe the contributions and roles of major individuals, including George Washington, James Madison and Benjamin Franklin.


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1.     explain how Greek and Roman societies expanded and advanced the role of citizen; and

2.     identify historical origins of democratic forms of government (e.g., early civilizations, Native American governments).


1.   [2/1] compare and contrast New MexicoÕs entry into the United States with that of the original thirteen colonies; and

2.   [2/1] compare understand the structure and function of New Mexico government as created by the New Mexico constitution and how it supports local, tribal and federal governments.


1.   political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American revolution and the United States government, to include:

a.   [1/1] ideas of the nature of government and rights of the individuals expressed in the declaration of independence with its roots in English philosophers (e.g., John Locke);

b.    concept of limited government and the rule of law established in the Magna Carta and the English bill of rights;

c.    [3/1] social covenant established in the Mayflower compact;

d.    characteristics of representative governments;

e.    anti-federalist and federalist arguments towards the new constitution, including those expressed in the federalist papers;

f.    concepts of federalism, democracy, bicameralism, separation of powers, and checks and balances;

2.     explain the concept and practice of separation of powers among the U.S. congress, the president and the supreme court; and

3.     understand the fundamental principles of American constitutional democracy, including how the government derives its power from the people.

5-8 Benchmark 3-D:  explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools,

communities, states, tribes and countries:


Performance Standards


1.     explain the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to

respect the rule of law and to preserve the constitutions of local, state, tribal and federal governments.


understand that the nature of citizenship varies among societies


1.     explain the obligations and responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., the obligations of upholding the constitution, obeying the law, paying taxes,

jury duty); and

2.     explain the roles of citizens in political decision-making (e.g., voting, petitioning public officials, analyzing issues).


1.     explain basic law-making processes and how the design of the United States constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to

participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., elections, political parties, interest groups); and

2.     understand the multiplicity and complexity of human rights issues.


Strand: Economics

Content Standard IV: Students understand basic economic principles and use economic reasoning skills to analyze the impact of economic systems (including the market economy) on individuals, families, businesses,

communities, and governments. Students will:

5-8 Benchmark 4-A:  explain and describe how individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies make decisions, are influenced by incentives (economic as well as intrinsic) and the availability and use of scarce resources, and that their choices involve costs and varying ways of allocating:


Performance Standards


1.     understand the impact of supply and demand on consumers and producers in a free-enterprise system;


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2.     understand the patterns of work and economic activities in New Mexico and the United States (e.g., farming, ranching, oil and gas production,

high tech, manufacturing, medicine);

3.     describe the aspects of trade; and

4.     explain how voluntary trade is not coercive.


1.    explain and predict how people respond to economic and intrinsic incentives.


1.     explain how economic and intrinsic incentives influence how individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies allocate and use

their scarce resources; and

2.     explain why cooperation can yield higher benefits.


1.     explain and provide examples of economic goals;

2.     analyze the full costs and benefits of alternative uses of resources that will lead to productive use of resources today and in the future; and

3.     explain that tension between individuals, groups and countries is often based upon differential access to resources.

5-8 Benchmark 4-B:  explain how economic systems impact the way individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies

make decisions about resources and the production and distribution of goods and services:


Performance Standards


1.     explain how all economic systems must consider the following: What will be produced?  How will it be produced? For whom will it be

produced; and

2.     identify the influence of bordering countries (Canada and Mexico) on United States commerce.


1.     describe the characteristics of traditional, command, market and mixed economic systems;

2.     explain how different economic systems affect the allocation of resources; and

3.     understand the role that Ņfactors of productio play in a societyÕs economy (e.g., natural resources, labor, capital, entrepreneurs).


1.     identify governmental activities that affect local, state, tribal and national economies;

2.     analyze the impact of taxing and spending decisions upon individuals, organizations, businesses and various government entities; and

3.     explain the relationship of New Mexico with tribal governments regarding compact issues (e.g., taxes, gambling revenue, rights of way).


1.     describe the relationships among supply, demand and price and their roles in the United States market system;

2.     identify how fundamental characteristics of the United StatesÕ economic system influence economic decision making (e.g., private property, profits, competition) at local, state, tribal and national levels;

3.      explain changing economic activities in the United States and New Mexico and the role of technology in those changes;

4.      identify situations in which price and value diverge; and

5.     describe the use of money over time (e.g., college funds beginning in elementary years, saving accounts, 401K accounts).

5-8 Benchmark 4-C:  describe the patterns of trade and exchange in early societies and civilizations and explore the extent of their

continuation in todayÕs world:


Performance Standards


1.     explain basic economic patterns of early societies (e.g., hunter-gathers, early farming, trade); and

2.     explain the economic motivation of exploration and colonization by colonial powers.


1.   [3/1] compare and contrast the trade patterns of early civilizations; and

2.     analyze the impact of the Neolithic agricultural revolution on mankind, and the impact of technological changes in the bronze age and the iron age.


1.    explain how specialization leads to interdependence and describe ways most Americans depend on people in other households, communities

and nations for some of the goods they consume;

2.     understand the interdependencies between the economies of New Mexico, the United States and the world;


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3.     understand the factors that currently limit New Mexico from becoming an urban state, including: the availability and allocation of water, and

the extent to which New Mexico relies upon traditional economic forms (e.g., the acequia systems, localized agricultural markets);

4.     [1/1, 2/2] describe the relationship between New Mexico, tribal and United States economic systems; and

5.     compare and contrast New Mexico commerce with that of other statesÕ commerce.


1.    [1/1] explain how specialization leads to interdependence and describe ways most Americans depend on people in other households, communities

and nations for some of the goods they consume;

2.     understand the interdependencies between the economies of New Mexico, the United States and the world;

3.     understand the factors that currently limit New Mexico from becoming an urban state, including: the availability and allocation of water, and the extent to which New Mexico relies upon traditional economic forms (e.g., the acequia systems, localized agricultural markets);

4.     describe the relationship between New Mexico, tribal and United States economic systems; and

5.     compare and contrast New Mexico commerce with that of other statesÕ commerce.







































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